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was developed during the 1950's Alan Turing. Basically, it is a test for Artificial Intelligence. Turing concluded that a machine could be seen as being intelligent if it could "fool" a human into believing it was human.
The Turing test is a behavioral approach to determining whether a system is intelligent or not. Turing argued in a 1950 paper that conversation was the key to judging intelligence. In the Turing test, a judge has conversations (via teletype) with two systems, one human, the other a machine. The conversations can be about anything, and proceed for a set period of time (e.g., an hour). If, at the end of this time, the judge cannot distinguish the machine from the human on the basis of the conversation, then Turing argued that we would have to say that the machine was intelligent. There are a number of different views about the utility of the Turing test in cognitive science. Some researchers argue that it is the benchmark test of what Searle calls strong AI, and as a result is crucial to defining intelligence. Other researchers take the position that the Turing test is too weak to be useful in this way, because many different systems can generate correct behaviors for incorrect (i.e., unintelligent) reasons. Famous examples of this are Weizenbaum's
program and Colby's
program. Indeed, the general acceptance of ELIZA as being "intelligent" so appalled Weizenbaum that he withdrew from mainstream AI research, which he attacked in his landmark 1976 book.
The original Turing Test involved a human interrogator using a computer terminal, which was in turn connected to two additional and unseen, terminals. At one of the "unseen" terminals is a human; at the other is a piece of computer software or hardware written to act and respond as if it were human.
The interrogator would converse with both human and computer. If, after a certain amount of time (Turing proposed five minutes, but the exact amount of time is generally considered irrelevant), the interrogator cannot decide which candidate is the machine and which the human, the machine is said to be intelligent.
This test has been broadened over time, and generally a machine is said to have passed the Turing Test if it can convince the interrogator into believing it is human, without the need for a second human, candidate.
Turing recognized that the class of machines is potentially much larger than the class of discrete state machines, he was himself very confident that properly engineered discrete state machines could succeed in the Imitation Game (and, moreover, at the time that he was writing, there were certain discrete state machines -- “electronic computers” -- that loomed very large in the public imagination).
In 1991 Dr. Hugh Loebner started the annual Loebner Prize competition. A $100,000 prize is offered to the author of the first computer program to pass an unrestricted Turing test.
Prof. Ashay Dharwadker