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Research Notes (75):

Research Note ID: 85
Course: Individual Study
Topic: Magic Crystal Ball
Description: A couple of days back, one of my friends told me to have a look at this "Magic" thing that is neat. I played around with it for sometime. It worked every single time. One of my friends doing it with me was in fact so mesmerized by this magic that he was co ...

Research Note ID: 84
Course: Topology
Topic: The Riemann Sphere
Description: The complex plane C is not compact. In the study of analytic functions, it is convenient to adjoin a single new point called ¥. This process is called the one-point compactification of C. The resulting compac ...

Research Note ID: 83
Course: Number Theory
Topic: Golden Ratio
Description: Ever imagined that every aspect of your life is controlled by Mathematics. If you haven't, then this better make you think.

When the concept of the Fibonacci Numbers was introduced, mathematicians the world over started working on the properties ...

Research Note ID: 82
Course: Number Theory
Topic: Random Fibonacci Series
Description: As explained in my previous research note on Fibonacci Numbers, if a Fibonacci Series is represented by:

ƒ(n + 2) = ƒ(n + 1) + ƒ(n)

Then, another interesting spin can be added by using this formula:

Research Note ID: 81
Course: Number Theory
Topic: Fibonacci Numbers
Description: The Fibonacci Numbers are one of the most talked about numbers in mathematics.

The numbers were named after the person who introduced them the first time, Leonardo Fibonacci, a 12th Century Mathematician. He was also known as < ...

Research Note ID: 80
Course: Machine Learning
Topic: Automatic Data Classification
Description: Ever thought how google and other search engines give you the best result everytime? Of course, they classify the millions of webpages according to some criteria and produce the results according to the user's request. But, ever thought how tedious it coul ...

Research Note ID: 78
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Berkeley Sockets
Description: In client-server applications, sockets are required to set up the connection over the network. Socket is a communiction protocol. To start with connection setting and message transmission, primitives are used.These are -
1. Socket.
3.Accept ...

Research Note ID: 77
Course: MS Project
Topic: Turing Machines and Recurrent Neural Networks

Turing Machines and Neural Networks
Who was Alan Turing

Alan Turing was the founder of computer science, mathematician, philosopher, code breaker and a visionary. He was born in 1912 (23 June) at Paddington, London. He ...

Research Note ID: 76
Course: Information Technology
Topic: Crystal Reports
Description: Using Crystal Reports, users can design optimized, high-performance reports using the basics of report design. The choices users make can range from simple, such as updating older reports to the latest file format, to more involved decisions, such as wheth ...

Research Note ID: 75
Course: MS Project
Topic: Transformational Grammar
Description: What is Noam Chomsky's transformational grammar?
Several things; it really comprises several layers of theory:
(1) The hypothesis that much of the structure of human language is inborn ('built-in') in the human brain, so that a baby learning ...

Research Note ID: 74
Course: MS Project
Topic: Data Mining Using Data Cubes on OLAP Systems
Description: In contrast to OLAP, which organizes data into predefined multidimensional structures to facilitate exploration, data mining performs the explorative analysis and identifies interesting nuggets of information such as groupings of data for the analyst or ma ...

Research Note ID: 73
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Ethernet Presentation
Description: Ethernet is a packet-switched computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). It defines wiring and signaling for the physical layer, and packet formats and protocols for the media access control (MAC)/data link layer of the OSI model. ET ...

Research Note ID: 72
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Computation of Fourier Series
Description: Consider the 0 and 1 step function f(x) as shown in my seminar description above. We compute the Fourier series as follows.

f(x)= 0     0<x<pi/2

     =  1     pi/2<x< ...

Research Note ID: 71
Course: MS Project
Topic: Widrow Hoff (Neural Networks)
Description: Boolean functions f that are implemented by a Threshold Logic Unit (TLU). We have the following equation


This function is a linearly separable function. For machines with only two actions 0,1 TLU’s suffic ...

Research Note ID: 70
Course: MS Project
Topic: Neural Networks
Description: Research Note :

I have developed the program for Hamming network and am studying Hopfield Networks currently.

I am also studying the research paper given by Ashay Sir which is very interesting. ...

Research Note ID: 69
Course: MS Project
Topic: Neural Networks
Description: Research Note :

During the seminar I mentioned that Neural Networks can be used for universal computation & universal approxiamation. Later, we found out that Turing Machines are Recurrent Neural Networks as any algebraically computable fun ...

Research Note ID: 68
Course: MS Project
Topic: Neural Networks
Description: Research Note :
  • Perceptron
    • Feedforward Network
    • Linear Decsion Boundary
    • One Neuron for Each Decision
  • Hamming Network
    • Competitive Network
    • First Layer: ...

Research Note ID: 67
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: TCP/IP
Description: TCP/IP is based on a four-layer reference model. All protocols that belong to the TCP/IP protocol suite are located in the top three layers of this model.
  • Application: Defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface ...

Research Note ID: 66
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Token Ring
Description: Background Token Ring is a Local Area Network (LAN) protocol. The Token Ring protocol was first developed by IBM. Token Ring is standardized in IEEE 802.5 that was published in 1985. The protocol deals with the problem of collision, which is defined ...

Research Note ID: 65
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Token Ring
Description: The Token Ring network was originally developed by IBM in the 1970s. It is still IBM's primary local-area network (LAN) technology. The related IEEE 802.5 specification is almost identical to and completely compatible with IBM's Token Ring network. In fact ...

Research Note ID: 64
Course: Algorithm Design - II
Topic: Mersenne Primes
Description: Many early writers felt that the numbers of the form 2^n-1 were prime for all primes n, but in 1536 Hudalricus Regius showed that 2^11-1 = 2047 was not prime (it is 23.89). By 1603 Pietro Cataldi had correctly verified that 2^17-1 and 2^19-1 were both pri ...

Research Note ID: 63
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Wireless Networking
Description: Wireless networking is one of several ways to connect computers. It creates a network by sending radio-frequency signals between computers, thereby, enabling them to share information. Since such networks are generally of the size of a LAN, they ar ...

Research Note ID: 62
Course: computer networks
Description: ETHERNET Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network (LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox and then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel. An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxi ...

Research Note ID: 61
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: The OSI Model
Description: The ISO based in Geneva develops standards for international and national data communications. In the early 1970's the ISO developed a standard model for data communications systems and called it the open system interconnection model, OSI model. ...

Research Note ID: 60
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Bayesian Networks
Description: Directed graphical models are called Bayesian networks or Belief Networks. In general terms we can say - Bayesian Networks are a model for representing uncertainty in our knowledge. This uncertainty arises in a variety of situations such as: ...

Research Note ID: 59
Course: Computer Networks
Description: In 1962, the United States and the earstwhile USSR were engaged in bitter rivalry. Both the US and the USSR were in the process of building hair-trigger nuclear ballistic missile systems and a nuclear attack seemed imminent. Each country pondered post-nucl ...

Research Note ID: 58
Course: Algorithm Design - II
Topic: Sociable Numbers
A sociable number is a generalization of the concepts of amicable numbers and perfect numbers. A set of sociable numbers is an aliquot sequence, or a sequence of numbers, with each number being the sum of the factors of t ...

Research Note ID: 57
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Wide Area Networks
Description: A wide area network is a computer network that spreads across a region, a whole country or even the whole world. WANs interconnect LANs located in any part of the world. It spans a large geographical area like a country or a continent. It contains a ...

Research Note ID: 56
Course: Algorithm Design - II
Topic: Uses of Hashing in Biology
Description: One of the major functions of hashing comes in Structural Biology where it is used to find the conformation of drug molecules (ligands) when they bind to protein surfaces. It is known that the

Research Note ID: 55
Course: Algorithm Design II
Topic: Prime Number Theorem
Description: Properties of Prime Numbers have been studied as far back as the ancient Greek Civilizations. Be it the mathematicians of Pythagoras' School (500 BC to 300 BC), Euclid in about 300 BC or Eratosthenes in around 200 BC; the Greeks came ...

Research Note ID: 54
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Hyper Text Transport Protocol
Description: HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). "Enquire Within Upon Everything" — a nifty little computer program written nearly 20 years ago by a lowly software consultant named Tim Berners-Lee. Who knew then that from this modest hack would flow the civilization ...

Research Note ID: 53
Course: Computer Networks
Topic: Java Code for the Client Server Application
// Server Application
=========== import java.net.*;
import java.io.*;
public class EchoServer
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException
ServerSocket serverSocket = null;

Research Note ID: 52
Course: Algorithm Design - II
Topic: Hashing and its applications
Description: Hashing is the transformation of a string of characters into a usually shorter fixed-length value or key that represents the origi ...

Research Note ID: 51
Course: MS Project
Topic: Huffman Coding (File Compression)
Description: When a file or data is tranmitted over a medium or better known as channel, it needs to be compressed. This is required to save the transmission time.For this various compression methods are available, like Huffman Encoding.
The Huffman e ...

Research Note ID: 50
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Artificial Intelligence

The following definitions are given by several experts from different time period:
Minsky, 1968 : "AI is the science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men."
Winston, ...

Research Note ID: 49
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Complexity of the Enigma Machine
Description: The basic 3-rotor Enigma has 26x26x26 = 17,576 possible rotor states for each of 6 wheel orders giving 6x17,576 = 105,456 machine states.
For each of these the plugboard (with ten pairs of letters connected) can be in 150,738,274,937,250 possible sta ...

Research Note ID: 48
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Visual Basic and Component Creation
Description: Why Use Visual Basic for Component Creation?
There are a number of reasons why Visual Basic is an ideal tool for creating many of the server components that we use. VB has grabbed the hearts and minds of millions of people. VBScript is a su ...

Research Note ID: 47
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Turing
TURING, ALAN MATHISON (1912-1954), British mathematician, logician, and pioneer computer scientist. Turing made a significant advance in the fields of symbolic logic and the foundations of mathematics by introducing the no ...

Research Note ID: 46
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Types of information Systems
There are three main types of information systems: data base management systems, bibliographic reference retrieval systems, and question-answering systems.
Data Base Management Systems.
Data base m ...

Research Note ID: 45
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Binary Numbers and Logic circuits
All digital computers are basically collections of switches. Each switch has two possible positions: open, "0", or off; and closed, "1", or on. The two positions form the basis of the binary (or two-valued: 0, 1) numb ...

Research Note ID: 44
Course: Database Systems
Topic: The Third Manifesto
Description: The Third Manifesto has been suggested by E.F Codd himself. It is the foundation for future Database Systems. The Third Manifesto is a proposal for the future direction of data and database management systems. It consists of a formal definition of an abstr ...

Research Note ID: 43
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Encryption in SQL
Description: The ENCRYPT function returns a value that is the result of encrypting data-string-expression. Generally the password used for encryption is either the password-string-expression value or the encryption password value.
  • Data-String-Expression ...

Research Note ID: 42
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Authorization
Description: In DBMS, DBA (Data Base Administrator) is the central authority for managing a data base systems. The data base administrator’s includes granting privileges to user who needs to use the system and classify user and data in accordance with the policy of ...

Research Note ID: 41
Course: Information Systems
Topic: SQL queries using MFC/VC++ Applications
Description: Here I will step you through a small application that will retrieve rows from your database and display them in a list box conrol.


Research Note ID: 40
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Normalization Process of Databases, & its Forms
Description: The 'normalization' process of databases refers to the step-by-step decomposition of complex records into simple records. Normalization reduces redundancy using the principle of non-loss decomposition. Non-loss decomposition is the reduction of a ta ...

Research Note ID: 39
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Relational Algebra in MySQL
Description: The 8 operators for Codd’s relational algebra are :
  • Restriction
  • Projection
  • Product
  • Union
  • Intersection
  • Difference
  • Join
  • Division

Research Note ID: 38
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Data Integrity
Description:Data Integrity, is a condition that exists when data has not been accidentally or maliciously modified, altered, or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. In order to maintain data integrity during operations such as transfer, storage, and retrieval ...

Research Note ID: 37
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Clustering
Definition of clustering (in databases): The tendency for entries in a hash table which uses open addressing to be stored together, even when the table has ample empty space to spread them out. Clustering in this case leads to inefficiency b ...

Research Note ID: 36
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Database Snapshots
Description: Snapshots are much like executing a query but still there are exceptions. Snapshots have common points as ‘view’ but not the same thing as 'view'. They are real not virtual unlike 'view'. Their own separately materialized copy of the data defines them. Sna ...

Research Note ID: 35
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Turing Test
Description: The Turing Test was developed during the 1950's Alan Turing. Basically, it is a test for Artificial Intelligence. Turing concluded that a machine could be seen as being intelligent if it could "fool" a human into believing it was ...

Research Note ID: 32
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Batcher's Odd-Even Merge Sort
Description: This algorithm was designed by E.K.Batcher
The first and only criteria for this sorting algorithm is that the number of elements must be of the order of 2n. Now the steps involved in doing so are:

i)Divide ...

Research Note ID: 31
Course: Database Systems
Topic: The Golden Rule
The first version-
  "No update opertaions must be ever allowed to leave any relvar in a state that violates its own predicate"

It applies to all the relvars,derived as well as base.Relvar stands for relational variable.Ther ...

Research Note ID: 29
Course: Database Systems
Description: SQL Views:

Views are logical tables of data extracted from existing tables. It can be queried just like a table, but does not require disk space. It can be thought of as either a virtual table or a stored query. Also the data accessible through a ...

Research Note ID: 28
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Optimization
Description: Optimization is one of the strengths of Relational Databases. This is because, in such a System, relational expressions are at a sufficiently high semantic level to make optimization feasible in the first place. The overall purpose of the optimizer is to i ...

Research Note ID: 27
Course: Database Systems
Topic: concurrency
In my opinion this term means that there are many transations made to access the same database at same time.It means that there are n number of transactions at a time on same database.For example, lets ...

Research Note ID: 26
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Cilent Server Architecture
Description: OLAP product should be sufficiently intelligent that various, cilents could be attached with minimium effort and programming for integration this much tougher test. However if we agree this point then we should be aware that most vendors who claim compli ...

Research Note ID: 23
Course: Probability and Statistics
Topic: Human Genome
Description: Our research on Human Genome consisted of :
  • Basics - what's the genome, DNA ?
  • DNA Sequencing and how it is done
  • Structure of DNA
  • Techniques of Deciphereing Genetic Code
  • A short sample of DNA (sequenced)

Research Note ID: 22
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Number Functions in SQL
Number Functions in SQL
  • ABS(data): Returns the absolute value of data (i.e. positive value).
  • CEIL(data): Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to ...

Research Note ID: 21
Course: MS Project
Topic: Progress till date
Description: Till date I have…
1) Researched Eliza chatbot and Joseph Weizenbaum pretty thouroughly.
2) Presented Wiezenbaum’s paper on Eliza to the class.
3) Analyzed how the program is written with the help of Ashay Sir.
4) Copied three ...

Research Note ID: 20
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Pattern Recognition using SQL

Pattern Recognition using SQL

LIKE 'pattern'
The pattern can contain wild card characters - % (percentage) and (underscore).

The % is used to denote any number of unknown characters and _ denotes one unknown character.

To ...

Research Note ID: 19
Course: Computer Science Research
Topic: Frequency Disruption in Wireless Network System
Description: The College business building at Tarleton Sate University is installing a new wireless network. I am working with the co-workers to find out the noise level and the general disruption that will affect the wireless network that is going to be installed. I ...

Research Note ID: 18
Course: MS Project
Topic: Neural Network

Research Note : I am currently studying the different networks that can be used to solve our problem. They are:
  • Feedforward Networks (perceptron)
  • Competitive Networks (Hamming Network)
  • Recurren ...

Research Note ID: 17
Course: Calculus
Topic: Integration
Description: I am trying to find the indefinite integral of sqrt(tanx) dx and the indefinite integral of sqrt(cos2x) dx. Any ideas?

Idea 1: There seem to be no known closed form antiderivatives for the given functions (in terms of the elementary functions) ...

Research Note ID: 15
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Working of Towers of Hanoi
Description: The Recurrence Relation emerging out of the basic concept of Towers of Hanoi is :

Let Tn be the no. of steps for Towers of Hanoi with 'n' disks.

Tn = Tn-1 + 1 + Tn-1
Tn = 2T< ...

Research Note ID: 14
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Alan Turing and Turing Machines
Description: We (Sudeep Tomar and I) gave a seminar on Turing Machines, which involved a great amount of research on the topic.A small introduction of the Machine and the scientist himself is written below.
Alan Mathison Turing was b ...

Research Note ID: 13
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Firewalls
Description: A Firewall is the combination of the two words Fire and Wall, as it is a wall that generates heat or fire to protect the system from the outside world.

Need of Firewalls:-
Your Home computer is safe and secu ...

Research Note ID: 12
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Queuing theory

Queueing Theory

Queues in computer science are very similar to queues in real life. A queue in real life would be a line up at a fast food counter or bank tellers machine where people are serviced in the order they arrive.
Therefore, we can ...

Research Note ID: 10
Course: MS Project
Topic: Noam Chomsky
Description: Few people have had a greater impact on 20th century thought as MIT linguist, activist, and political dissident Noam Chomsky. It's often been said that Chomsky is to linguistics what Einstein is to physics. His 1957 treatise, Syntactic Structures, propose ...

Research Note ID: 9
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Euclidean Algorithm
Description: Finding greatest common divisors -

This computes the greatest common divisor of two given integers via the Euclidean Algorithm, showing all the steps. The greatest common divisor is explicitly noted at the bottom.

first=7654321 ...

Research Note ID: 8
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Towers of Hanoi
Description: The towers of hanoi puzzel was invented by the french mathematician,Edouard Lucas, in 1883.It is also known as Tower of Brahma or the End of the world puzzle.He was inspired by a legend by someone that tells about a pyramid puzzle.The person says if someo ...

Research Note ID: 7
Course: Information Systems
Topic: Tower of Hanoi Puzzel
Description: The Tower of Hanoi is sometimes referred to as the "Tower of Brahma" or the "End of the World Puzzle " . This puzzle was invented by the French mathematician Edouard Lucas in 1883 after he got inspired by a legend that tells of a Hindu temple where the py ...

Research Note ID: 5
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Data Mining
Description: Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cut costs, or both. Data minin ...

Research Note ID: 4
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Towers of Hanoi
Description: According to a legend, in the temple of Hanoi, there lies a brass plate on which are mounted three diamond pin. On the first pin, 6 discs of pure gold are placed with the largest disc placed first and the rest on top of it in decreasing order of size. The ...

Research Note ID: 2
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Data Mining
Description: Data Mining is the process of finding new and potentially useful knowledge from a database.It ia an old concept used for finding data in effective manner Data mining is also a process of information extraction activity whose goal is to discover hidden fact ...

Research Note ID: 1
Course: Database Systems
Topic: Example - Relational Algebra
Description: The design and implementation of My Students Database is based upon Codd's relational algebra. The eight operators for Codd’s relational algebra are:
1. Restriction: Returns a table containing all records from a specified table that satisfy a s ...

Number of queries performed on the database: 237829

Database last updated on Wednesday, 26th March 2014, 04:23:01 PM

Prof. Ashay Dharwadker